Carbon trading research papers

Carbon trading research papers

PCT has attracted political interest in the UK, particularly during — PCT is an umbrella term which describes various downstream cap-and-trade policies, which have different detailed rules and system boundaries, but all of which aim to limit carbon emissions within a society by engaging individuals in the process. A further criticism of PCT is that it will discourage people from spending money and hence will slow economic growth and reduce the UK competitive advantage compared with places where no such constraint exists. Finally, understanding public interpretations of fairness in energy and climate change policy is vital. It would be reasonable to assume that there should not be a significant technical barrier to implementing a PCT scheme. Costs would depend very much on the scheme structure and the implementation details. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford. PCT provides an overarching approach to personal emissions. To be effective, a PCT scheme must be mandatory. The cost of introducing, running, and enforcing PCT could be a significant barrier. However, people do not necessarily react to price signals imposed by taxes in the manner predicted by neoclassical economics. Because climate and evolution are complex, long-term spatio-temporal processes they can seem abstract and impersonal when compared to everyday experience on a human scale Aubrey, ; Irvine, The interaction between these mechanisms and the overall impact of the policy will be contingent upon a range of other factors related to the design of the scheme and its public support. Seeking views on a hypothetical policy, whose details have not yet been fully worked out, is somewhat problematic, and care needs to be taken in interpretation of results. There is concern about different sorts of unfairness.

Therefore, while the evidence points to public acceptability not being an overwhelming barrier to the uptake of PCT, scheme design would need to deliver the benefits expected by those in favor, and allay the fears of those against, to achieve public support.

It is unique because it accesses and combines a number of mechanisms to drive behavior change: economic, psychological, and social.

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However, a variety of other research work has subsequently demonstrated that public acceptability may not be such a barrier as feared. Many design options need to be considered, including allocation rules do children get an allowance, and if so, how much?

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Based on the author's auto-ethnographic experience as a participant in both initiatives, it is argued that carbon calculators and personalised genomics involves a pragmatics of scale that evaluates and compares users on the basis of their relative expression of, or deviation from, a standard.

While the proportion of national emissions which arise from each sector varies between countries, personal carbon emissions and energy use is generally a significant proportion of the total in developed countries.

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There is concern about different sorts of unfairness. This concept has been explored in the context of developed countries, particularly the UK where this idea originates and where much of the research, as well as the real-world examination, has been carried out so far. The trial is in its early stages, but already, people are registered for it, there is an electronic carbon accounting system, feedback on carbon emissions, and rewards for participation. As mentioned earlier, PCT is a general term which describes various downstream cap-and-trade policies. Many design options need to be considered, including allocation rules do children get an allowance, and if so, how much? Howell, 19 who examined such voluntary schemes, argues that while people who tend to join such schemes are usually environmentally aware and do not represent the general population, there are insights from this experience that would be relevant for a mandatory PCT scheme. Unlike upstream policies which place much of the responsibility for emission reduction on the energy sector, operate at a distance from individuals, and do not require their direct involvement eg, minimum efficiency standards for products , PCT focuses on energy users themselves. Summary and conclusion The urgent need for increased action to reduce carbon emissions from developed countries is unarguable. A wide range of research approaches should be involved to test policy designs, including researching voluntary PCT and similar schemes, laboratory experiments, research trials, modeling and qualitative, deliberative methods.

A wide range of research approaches should be involved to test policy designs, including researching voluntary PCT and similar schemes, laboratory experiments, research trials, modeling and qualitative, deliberative methods.

So far, very few products have carbon labels showing their embodied emissions, and creating these is complex. Some of the proposed schemes are outline ideas eg, a proposal for a scheme covering household energy only 16while others have been developed and investigated in more detail eg, tradable energy quotas 17 and personal carbon allowances PCT has the potential to tackle a significant proportion of emissions in these countries.

Moving from technical and economic barriers to those based more on values or ideology, the fairness of PCT is a key concern.

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However, opportunities for PCT adoption could open up, particularly if governments fail to meet their carbon reduction targets. Some of the proposed schemes are outline ideas eg, a proposal for a scheme covering household energy only 16 , while others have been developed and investigated in more detail eg, tradable energy quotas 17 and personal carbon allowances In , Defra published four reports regarding PCT, which covered its technical feasibility and potential cost, effectiveness and strategic fit, public acceptability, and distributional impacts. Climate and evolution are general patterns that gradually develop over long periods of time and, for this reason, cannot be directly observed as such. The most detailed early work on this was carried out by Ekins and Dresner. It is unique because it accesses and combines a number of mechanisms to drive behavior change: economic, psychological, and social. It continues with a review of the history of PCT in the UK policy arena and discusses public and political acceptability issues as well as the various barriers facing a PCT scheme. However, further research is also required to fully explore the case for PCT. As a result, emissions from all energy sources, other than electricity, in the residential sector are not covered by a cap and trade scheme. New approaches to reducing carbon emissions from energy use are clearly needed. Finally, understanding public interpretations of fairness in energy and climate change policy is vital.

Table 2 provides a summary of voluntary PCT-like schemes. PCT is an umbrella term which describes various downstream cap-and-trade policies, which have different detailed rules and system boundaries, but all of which aim to limit carbon emissions within a society by engaging individuals in the process.

The paper concludes with a reflection on what further research is needed to take the idea forward. As this paper has emphasized, considerable political and societal change would be needed for PCT to make the transition from an idea to an adopted policy.

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Carbon Trading Research Papers