InCheng et al.
Additional well-powered longitudinal prospective studies with detailed information on population and delivery characteristics, potentially with randomization of interventions, could add further information.
Gestational age was mainly based on an early second trimester sonogram, which can have up to 14 days difference from last menstrual period.
References 1. His head was asynclitic and then he turned OP posterior. Many investigators argue that the present guidelines are not arbitrary and, rather, have shown that prolongation of the second stage of labor increases the risk of maternal and fetal complications 10 - They found that experienced mothers who pushed for 3 or more hours had higher rates of vacuum and forceps delivery, Cesarean, 3rd and 4th degree tears, postpartum hemorrhage, and infection.
There were some increases in risks to the newborn, as well, including brachial plexus palsy, seizure, hypoxic brain injury; however, all of these rates were extremely low overall. Seven out of eight studies found no increase in the rate of NICU admissions after a pushing phase that exceeded two hours.
In our first photo together, you can see the little forceps mark on his face. The researchers found that first-time mothers who pushed for more than 2 hours and experienced mothers who pushed for more than 1 hour were more likely to have chorioamnionitis, obstetric trauma including 3rd or 4th degree tearspostpartum hemorrhage, wound complications, and fever—even after taking into account other factors such as epidural and antibiotic use.