Western civilization reformation

And slowly, reluctantly, one notion a few radical Protestants put about -- that freedom of speech and of worship were actually good things, not just unavoidable necessities to be tolerated -- became a new orthodoxy.

Like virtually everyone of his time, he found the idea horrifying. When he was finally dragged before the assembled majesty of church and empire in and ordered to renounce his errors, he refused, insisting that his conscience was captive to the Word of God, a higher authority than any pope, bishop or king.

Protestant reformation definition

Luther considered indulgences, praying to saints, pilgrimages, and many other such "works" as worthless and a fraud inflicted on the people by the church. This meant the church would refuse them the sacraments and other "works" necessary for saving their souls. On the other hand, the Protestant emphasis on literacy, education, and hard work laid the foundation for the rise of modern Europe. A few Protestants in the s and many more in the s reached a new conviction: that slavery was an absolute and intolerable evil. New religious orders, notably the Jesuits, combined rigorous spirituality with a globally minded intellectualism, while mystics such as Teresa of Avila injected new passion into the older orders. Peter's Basilica in Rome. In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdam , a great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher.

Who were some of the key figures of the Reformation? Supreme Court has agreed with Jefferson's interpretation. On October 31,Luther wrote a letter to the archbishop protesting the sale of indulgences.

These instances must be seen as exceptions, however, no matter how much they were played up by polemicists. In the process, they helped give the modern world the counterintuitive notion of limited government: the principle that a government's first duty is to get out of the way of its people's lives as much as it can.

reformation movement

The results are paradoxical. He also translated the New Testament into German so all literate persons could read the word of God for themselves.

Background of reformation

Burger's survey covers all of the expected factual bases, but it also challenges readers to reflect on the process of history-making itself, models enquiry for them, and calls attention to the structuring limitations on our pursuit of historical knowledge: evidence never speaks of its own accord, different questions require different levels of resolution, similarities among cultures serve to heighten the contrasts, past and present ways of looking at the world may be incommensurable, historians must beware of moralizing—and all this just in the first chapter! Yet, in , an obscure German priest and university professor named Martin Luther stood up alone against the church and pope. At the beginning of the 16th century, the power of kings was increasing in most Western European countries. Luther also ranted against witches and demons. Luther and other pamphleteers, increasingly called "Protestants," argued that priests should marry and have children, the number of sacraments should be reduced, and the Catholic mass should be held in German instead of Latin. Another form of penance in the 16th century was the indulgence , a certificate from a bishop or the pope who forgave a person's sins. But by insisting that all human authority was provisional and that conscience can be constrained only by the Bible and the Holy Spirit, he ensured that Protestants who try to police the boundaries of acceptable argument will in the end always fail. Although he had hoped to spur renewal from within the church, in he was summoned before the Diet of Worms and excommunicated. Citation Information.

If you're inclined to believe that our modern divisions go back to the way Luther smashed all order and authority: well, no one can tell you you're wrong.

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The Protestant Reformation (article)